Need to know the electric bike controller
What is an electric bike controller?
The electric bicycle controller is one of the main parts of the electric bicycle. It is the brain of the electric bicycle, which controls the motor’s speed, starts, and stops. It is connected to all other electronic components such as battery, motor and throttle (accelerator), display (speedometer), PAS or other speed sensors (if present).
The controller consists of the main chip (microcontroller) and peripheral components (resistors, sensors, MOSFETs, etc.). The controller generally has PWM generator circuit, AD circuit, power supply circuit, power device drive circuit, signal acquisition and processing circuit, overcurrent and undervoltage protection circuits.
How does the electric bike controller work?
After connecting the battery, the controller provides working voltage to external equipment through the power circuit, such as switch +5V, headlight +5V, etc.
The PWM outputs the corresponding pulse waveform to the MOSFET drive circuit according to the input of the throttle or PAS. The MOSFET drive circuit controls the turn-on and turn-off of the MOSFET circuit, thereby controlling the motor speed.
The undervoltage circuit is to protect the battery from being discharged when the voltage is lower than the set value of the controller, and the PWM circuit stops output at this time.
The overcurrent protection circuit limits the controller, battery, and motor to work under excessive current.
What is the role of an electric bicycle controller?
The core function of an electric bike controller is to get all the inputs from all the electronic components (throttle, speed sensor, display, battery, motor, etc.), and then determine what signal (motor, battery, display) should be sent to them.
The other multiple protection functions of the controller will be different from the design of the controller. The following are some basic protection functions.
1) Overvoltage protection.
The controller monitors the battery voltage and shuts down the motor when the battery voltage is too high. This prevents the battery from overcharging.
2) Low voltage protection.
The controller monitors the battery voltage and shuts down the motor when the battery voltage is too low. This prevents the battery from over-discharging.
3) Over temperature protection.
The controller monitors the temperature of the FETs (field effect transistors), and if they become too hot, it shuts down the motor. This can protect the FET power transistor.
4) Overcurrent protection.
If the current provided is too large, reduce the current of the motor. This can protect the motor and FET power transistors.
5) Brake protection.
Even if the controller receives other signals at the same time, the motor will shut down when braking. For example, if the user steps on the brake and the accelerator at the same time, the brake function wins.
How to choose an electric bike controller?
The controller should be selected suitable for other components-motors, batteries, displays, etc.
The following factors will be considered:
1.Controller drive type-is it a sine wave controller or a square wave controller?
Advantages of sine wave controller:
(1) Reduce noise.
(2) The motor efficiency is higher when climbing slopes or heavy loads.
(3) The sine wave controller has smoother and more predictable control for all operations.
Disadvantages of sine wave controller:
(1) Higher prices.
(2) Only applicable to matched motors.
(3) Higher power consumption.
Advantages of square wave controller:
(1) Lower price
(2) Suitable for different motors
(3) Higher efficiency during sudden acceleration or sudden braking
(4) Higher power supply voltage utilization
Disadvantages of square wave controller:
(1) The noise is loud.
(2) The control is not linear, not smooth, and sometimes punched.
(3) The efficiency of the motor is reduced when climbing slopes or heavy loads.
2.Is it a Hall sensor drive or a non-Hall sensor or dual-mode controller?
Generally speaking, if the motor has a Hall sensor, the controller should be a Hall sensor or dual mode. The Hall sensor in the motor will sense the rotation of the motor, and the controller will output the corresponding voltage to the motor according to the sensor signal. More stable, lower power consumption, and larger starting torque. When the motor Hall sensor is damaged, the Hall sensor controller may prompt an error and stop working, while the dual-mode controller works normally.
3.Controller voltage-24V or 36V or 48V or 60V or other?
The controller voltage should match the voltage of the motor and battery.
4.Controller current (rated current and maximum current)
The controller current should be less than the battery output current.
Generally, the maximum current of 6-MOSFET controller is 18A, 9-MOSFET controller is 25A, 12-MOSFET controller is 35A, 15-MOSFET controller is 40A, and 18-MOSFET controller is 50A.
How to connect the electric bike controller?
The wire type and wire terminal (connector) of the electric bicycle controller may be different in different controller designs. You need the electric bike controller wiring diagram to ensure the correct wiring connection.
Most electric bike controllers have these wires for motors, batteries, brakes, accelerator/accelerator or PAS pedal assist system (some controllers have two types of wires, some have one of them).
More wires can be found in advanced controllers, such as display or speedometer, three-speed, reverse, LED lights, etc.
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